According to an online conference on management of air quality in Hà Nội, status of pollution sources and solutions, co-hosted by the World Bank (WB) and Department of Natural Resources and Environment of Hà Nội, biomass burning accounts for 26%, industrial activities 29%, and transport 15% of total emissions of fine particulate matters PM 2.5 in Hà Nội. This is the result of a study conducted by WB from August 2019 to July 2020. The project analyzed chemical compositions of PM 2.5 in Hà Nội, Hưng Yễn, and Bắc Ninh and used GAINS model for verification.
Of the total PM 2.5 emissions, only one to third generated from Hà Nội, the rest came from neighboring provinces, the Red River Delta region, international transport, and natural sources. About 3.5 million inhabitants in Hà Nội were infected by PM 2.5 with concentrations above 45 μm/m3, which is higher than the Vietnamese standard of 25 μm/m3, stated by the environmental expert of WB, Nguyễn Thị Lệ Thu.
Source & further information: “Bụi mịn ở Hà Nội hình thành từ các nguồn nào?” at https://vnexpress.net, accessed on 5 July 2021.