Maps of particulate matters 2.5 first developed for Vietnam


After introducing the first report on particulate matters 2.5 emissions, the Magazine “Tia Sáng” and Live & Learn have prepared nationwide maps of 2.5 microns or smaller in size (PM2.5) in 2019 and 2020. The maps were developed using the Mixed Effect Model and are visualized on the website: This work is within the projects “Join hands for clean air” and “Improving air pollution monitoring and management of Vietnam with satellite PM2.5 observation” which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

– Overview picture in Vietnam: all provinces exceed WHO’s standard. The following areas have high PM2.5 contents: Red River Delta (Hà Nội and surrounding provinces), Thanh Hóa, Nghệ An, Hà Tĩnh (coastal areas), Hồ Chí Minh City (HCMC), Đồng Nai, and Bình Dương. In the Red River Delta, the meteorological condition is part of the reason for the high PM2.5 contents in the winter months.

– Sources of PM2.5: burning agricultural residues (40%), domestic cooking activities (17%), inland transport (13%), forest fire (12.7%), industrial activities (11%), thermal power plants (3.3%).

– Urban areas: the rates of urban areas which have higher PM2.5 contents are 50%, 36.4%, 15.6%, 31.3%, and 12.1% for urban hierarchical classes of Special (Hà Nội, HCMC), One, Two, Three, and Four, respectively.

– Regional distribution: in 2020, the PM contents ranged from 9.9 to 35.8 µg/m3 for the Nord (higher in Red River Delta, lower in Midland and mountainous areas); 8 to 32.3 µg/m3 for the Central (lower in Central Highlands); 8.5 to 29.1 μg/m3 for the South (lower in the Mekong Delta).

– Hà Nội: The PM2.5 pollution majorly concentrates on inner districts. Besides internal sources, meteorological conditions and outside sources were also blamed for the high PM2.5 content in Hà Nội. Industrial and craft villages activities were the biggest PM2.5 contributor (48.3%), followed by inland transportation (21.3%), and burning agricultural residues (20.2%). There were 3,000 early mortality cases due to exposure to PM2.5 in 2018.

– Hồ Chí Minh City (HCMC): Unlike Hà Nội, there was an insignificant difference between inner districts and suburban areas. The PM2.5 contents were higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. Inland transportation was the highest PM2.5 contributor (45%).

Related article:
First report on nationwide fine particles pollution 2019 – 2020: all provinces excess WHO’s standard

Sources & further information: “Hiện trạng bụi PM2.5 tại Việt Nam năm 2019 – 2020” at, “Bản đồ phát thải PM2.5 lần đầu xuất hiện tại Việt Nam” at, and “Bản đồ hiện trạng PM2.5 ở Việt Nam: Nỗ lực đầu tiên” at, accessed on 27 December 2021.