Vietnam’s delegation, led by Prime Minister Phạm Minh Chính, has attended the 26th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow, Scotland from 31 October to 12 November 2021 (COP26). The trip demonstrates the country’s determination and efforts in promoting and realizing international commitments to climate change response.
The COP26 has the following goals:
(1) Secure global net-zero by 2050 and keep 1.5oC within reach: countries need to speed up coal elimination, curtail deforestation, switch to electric vehicles, and promote investment in renewables
(2) Adapt to protect communities and natural habitats
(3) Mobilize finance: developed countries must realize their promise to mobilize a minimum of US $100 billion in climate finance per year by 2020
(4) Work together to:
– finalize the Paris rule-book
– accelerate action to solve the climate crisis through cooperation between governments, businesses, and civil society
Vietnam is among the countries most vulnerable to climate change impacts in the world. Alone in 2020, extreme weather events have caused tremendous economic losses and lives in Vietnam. Under the impact of climate change, the extreme weather events in Vietnam are more and more intensified and likely unpredictable.
Vietnam has issued policies and legislation to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. For example:
– Resolution 24-NQ/TW in 2013 on the active response to climate change and improvement of natural resource management and environmental protection
– Ratification of the Paris Agreement on climate change 2015 at the COP21
– Conclusion 56-KL/TW in 2019 on continuing to implement Resolution 7, term XI on proactively responding to climate change, strengthening natural resource management and environmental protection
– Resolution No. 55-NQ/TW in 2020 on strategic orientations for Vietnam’s national energy development to 2030, vision to 2045
– Decision No. 1055/QĐ-TTg in 2020 on National plan on climate change adaptation 2021 – 2030, vision 2050
Vietnam has submitted the updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the United Nations and integrated it into law. Specifically, the country commits to reducing GHG emissions by 9% and 27% with domestic capacities and international support respectively. The GHG reduction rates in the updated version of NDC are higher than the original contribution. Concerning the energy sector, it will significantly reduce coal-fired power. Meanwhile, renewable energy will be increased to 20% of the total primary supply by 2030 and to 30% by 2045. Furthermore, Vietnam will reduce the GHG emissions per GDP by approx. 15% by 2030 and methane emissions in agricultural production by 10%. Since April 2021, Vietnam has been conducting a campaign to plant one billion trees by 2025, which will absorb 2 to 3% GHG emissions by 2030. In October 2021, a draft decree regulating the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and the protection of the ozone layer was submitted for approval.
Sources & further information: “Việt Nam dự COP 26: Chủ động ứng phó với thời tiết khắc nghiệt” at https://www.vietnamplus.vn, “What do we need to achieve at COP26?” at https://ukcop26.org, “Những nội dung chính của Hội nghị COP26 về biến đổi khí hậu” at https://cdnimg.vietnamplus.vn, and “Vietnam plays active role in climate change response: ambassador” at https://en.vietnamplus.vn, accessed on 1 November 2021.